Spinning a pedagogical yarn: the role of storytelling in the classroom

Class Teaching

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The 15 minute forum tonigh was led by Andy Tharby.

Andy started by sharing 3 principles for good teacher explanation:

  • New knowledge should be linked to existing knowledge
  • Ideas should be introduced in clear steps
  • Abstract ideas are made simple and concrete in the listener’s mind

yarn2Good explanations matter, because it becomes very easy to fall into the curse of the expert.  As highly knowledgeable subject experts, it’s very easy for us to forget the steps we took to acquire this knowledge.  So we need to be tactical and strategic, whenever we are explaining new ideas, if we are going to make the information accessible to our students.  Storytelling helps with  this.

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Why tell stories?

“Stories are ‘psychologically privileged’.”   We are ‘hard-wired’ to learn from stories, as that’s how early humans learnt from their ancestors, before we had books and other methods of passing on information.

– Daniel Willingham, Why don’t students like school?

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Modelling for Excellence

RGS Learning

[by John Smithand Celia Bone]

How do we modelanswerswithout crushing creativity?

This question seems to go to the heart of everyday teaching: the balance between prompting and telling.I think ofmodellingas a continuum and I do not considerone end of the spectrum more valuable than the other. It depends on the nature of the task or topic.

modelling continuumI hope Ken Robinson is not reading when I say: there arecertain topics in my own subject of Maths where creativity is the last thing I want! For example, when teaching Solving Linear Equations in Year 7, we have a ‘house style’ ofmodelling the topic that I expect all teachers to follow. I believe we are doing the students a dis-service if we do not provide them with the formal “Maths Toolkit” needed to approach harder problems in the future. The highly prescriptive teacher-modelling approach workswell for tasks with a closed outcome. However…

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How do we develop teaching? A journey from summative to formative feedback

Evidence into Practice

researchED: Research leads network day, Brighton. April 18th 2015

The beginning of the new term means it’s taken a little while to get around to blogging about the great event on Saturday. This tardiness is additionally poor given that I was one of the presenters! However, there are some great summaries of the network day already out there. Two that caught my eye were:

ResearchED Brighton: inside out not bottom up   via @joeybagstock

#rEDBright – summary of a research lead conference by a faux research lead!   via @nikable

One of the themes that emerged from the day, for me, was the growing dissatisfaction with unreliable summative judgements of teacher quality and the view that schools would be better off looking at ways of formatively evaluating teaching through some sort of disciplined inquiry process.

From judgements of teaching quality …

Daniel Muijs opened the day with the provocative question ‘Can we…

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The Power of Teacher Expectations

Posted by @HuntingEnglish

Mr Laing was my year 8 Maths teacher. He was a rare breed indeed. He helped me, and my fellow pimple-clad teens, find mathematics interesting. Intermittently, he would betray a deep excitement about a mathematics problem or reveal that he had woken up in the middle of the night with an answer to some mathematics concept. We were incredulous – being excited by mathematics was anathema. Soon enough, incredulity became intrigue. Over time, he made us think that such interest might be possible for us too.

Mr Laing had once been like us, he had told us. He didn’t like Maths either at school – he had found it too difficult. He spoke about how he had persevered and something had inexplicably clicked. Though still difficult, it had become gradually easier. He found pleasure in what W. B. Yeats termed, “the fascination of what’s difficult“. Maths became his passion.

Over the course of a year or two, with the implicit language of high expectation and an unremitting belief in our capacity to be better at mathematics we became believers.

What magic was this? What trickery? As a teacher, now, I wrack my brains to remember the detail of what he did and what he said. I can’t quite remember – I can only recall the lingering feeling he had created. Sadly, Mr Laing left and with different teachers my instinctive aversion to mathematics returned. A lifetime of impressions from my family – that we were natural born readers and artistic types, naturally hopeless at mathematics, reasserted itself grimly. My own expectation of success in Maths was diminished.

Later on, with a better understanding of psychology and teaching, Mr Laing’s magic became something less mysterious.

The Pygmalion Effect

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“I shall always be a flower girl to Professor Higgins because he always treats me as a flower girl and always will; but I know I can be a lady to you because you always treat me as a lady and always will.”

—Eliza Doolittle, in Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw

The Pygmalion effect goes some way to explaining why the impact of Mr Laing on my motivation and achievement in mathematics rocketed under his tutelage. This concept was first researched by the famous Rosenthal and Jacobson study in 1968. Many studies since have charted the powerful impact of teacher expectations. It is instinctive stuff: a student charged with self-belief sticks at problems longer, tries a little harder, drawing upon that extra motivation. It is often implicit and beyond noticing, but it is omnipresent in schools.

We must be acutely aware of the expectations we convey and the mindset we model for our students in our every interaction, our every utterance. Whether I thought I could learn maths or not, I was right. Sadly, when Mr Laing left my school my love of mathematics left with him.

The Galatea Effect

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In Greek mythology, the name Galatea given to a statue that is carved in ivory by Pygmalion of Cyprus. Though created by Pygmalion, Galatea became real and came to believe in herself and flourished.

This concept is very similar to the Pygmalion effect but with one key difference. Whereas the Pygmalion effect is founded upon the power of expectations from other people, like teachers, theGalatea effect is based upon the expectations we hold for ourselves. Self-efficacy, our belief in our capacity to successfully complete a task, is effectively the Galatea effect, but without the nice mythic tale. The power of self-efficacy, though no guarantee of success, can prove essential fuel to help drive our self-improvement.

We are all aiming to mould our own students so that have the self-belief that they can learn successfully. Mr Laing brought mathematics to life for me alongside my fragile self-belief that I could tackle the problems. The vital image of a statue emerging into life, like Galatea, is a potent metaphor for the power of self-belief and fashioning a great future.

The Golem Effect

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I went to a school that would have been labelled a “bog standard state school” or worse. The number of students from deprived backgrounds, and with special educational needs, was sky high. Mr Laing could have easily assumed that we were not ‘academic‘ enough to flourish studying maths.

He could have exercised the ‘Golem effect’ – effectively the opposite of the ‘Pygmalion effect’.

The Golem, a monster created by Rabbi Loew in Prague, in Hasidic mythology, is a creature made of clay used as a tool for its maker. Alas, one Sabbath, the Rabbi forgets to shut down the monster and left to its own devices, the Golem is destructive, and is in turn destroyed.

This mythic tale reveals that dark flip-side of expectancy. If we expect students to fail then they may prove more  likely to do so. Even the most subtle instinct to lower our expectations can have damaging effects on the achievement of our students. Again, we must be aware of the tremendous power of our beliefs and the expectations of our students in every small interaction we undertake. It may be the simple act of selecting a student to show their answer or share their work, or the student groupings we allocate. It may be the setting system we deploy, or the degree of difficulty in the class work that we select.

High Expectations

The call to have high expectations is an act of stating the bleedin’ obvious, but the reality of human nature, our mindset, and those of our students, can too often subtly prove damaging to deeply held expectations of success. A teacher having a deep belief in the tremendous plasticity of the human brain and the capacity of our students to become great mathematicians or historians really matters. For me, it often marks out the great teachers from the good.

One of the redeeming features of being a teacher is the endless annual renewal. Like flowers emerging in spring, our new classes begin afresh, afresh, afresh and our expectancy can be renewed. Each school year, each class, each relationship a new start, with many students maturing and changing for the better (I am not naive – the converse can also prove true for some).

With teachers like Mr Laing, who patently loved teaching mathematics, believing in the limitless potential of my friends and I,  anything felt possible, and we flourished. That feeling, and those memories, have never left me and they inform how I try to teach. Of course, no one teacher can create such expectancy alone – it takes a school, parents and even peers, and more – but each individual teacher can make a difference small, but significant difference.

Related reading:

Ross McGill – @TeacherToolkit – has written an excellent blog on the Pygmalion effect – see here.

This is an excellent American research article on the effects described above: ‘The Role of Golem, Pygmalion, and Galatea Effects on Opportunistic Behavior in the Classroom‘.

Exploratory Talk

Learning in My Classroom

I have been developing the use of Exploratory Talk in my classroom over the last year or so and I feel that it is a powerful strategy which has had a tremendous impact on the achievement of pupils I teach. Through the training of pupils in how to use exploratory talk, a culture of high expectations and the willingness to try – take risks – develop ideas independently, has flourished and alongside it, pupils’ results. For example, 95% of my Y11 GCSE English Literature class are making expected progress (the 5% who are not, refers to one pupil who has never attended a lesson) and 86% more than expected progress. This class have target grades of D-B. I was asked to share my use of exploratory talk in a whole school CPD session in January and have subsequently written this up in the following blog.

Exploratory talk (ET) is not…

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